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Saturday, 6 July 2013

POWER PRODUCE USING SPEED BREAKERS


          

POWER PRODUCE USING SPEED BREAKERS



ABSTRACT:

Man in his lifetime, uses energy in one form or the other. In fact whatever happens in nature, results, out of the conversion of energy in one form or the other? The blowing of the wind, the formation of the clouds and the flow of water are a few examples that stand testimony to this fact. Of late, erratic and perfunctory usage of energy has resulted in an energy crisis, and there is a need to develop methods of optimal utilization, which will not only ease the crisis but also preserve the environment.

This project attempts to show how man has been utilizing energy and to explore prospects of optimizing the same.  Researches show that the world has already had its enough shares of its energy resources. Fossil fuels pollute the environment. Nuclear energy requires careful handling of both raw as well as waste material. The focus now is shifting more and more towards the renewable sources of energy, which are essentially, nonpolluting.
Energy conservation is the cheapest new source of energy. It is an attractive technology for optimal use of available
sources. This project attempts to show how energy can be tapped and used at a commonly used system, the road-speed breakers. The number of vehicles passing over the speed breaker in roads is increasing day by day. There is possibility of tapping the energy and generating power by making the speed breaker as a power generation unit.
Ø  The generated power can be used for the lamps near the speed breakers.

Ø  

Hence, a project work has been done in our institution, implementing this idea practically under the title “Design and Development of Power Generation Unit in Speed Breakers”. This project explains clearly, the working principle of the designed system, its practical implementation, and its advantages.
Design of each component has been carried out using standard procedures, and the components have been fabricated and assembled. A similar model of the system has been modeled using Pro-E. Practical testing of the system has been done with different loads at different speeds. Taking the various criteria that determine the power generation, graphs have been plotted. The second project will show you how to create a shoe that generates electricity. It does this by using your energy when you walk and converts it into electricity. Its just a simple craft that every one should know it.

AIM OF THE PROJECT:

This project attempts to show how energy can be tapped and used at a commonly used system- the road speed-breakers. The number of vehicles passing over the speed breaker in roads is increasing day by day.

A large amount of energy is wasted at the speed breakers through the dissipation of heat and also through friction, every time a vehicle passes over it. There is great possibility of tapping this energy and generating power by making the speed-breaker as a power generation unit. The generated power can be used for the lamps, near the speed-breakers.

SCOPE OF THE PROJECT:

The utilization of energy is an indication of the growth of a nation. For example, the per capita energy consumption in USA is 9000 KWh (Kilo Watt hour) per year, whereas the consumption in India is 1200 KWh (Kilo Watt hour). One might conclude that to be materially rich and prosperous, a human being needs to consume more and more energy.
         
A recent survey on the energy consumption in India had published a pathetic report that 85,000 villages in India do not still have electricity. Supply of power in most part of the country is poor. Hence more research and development and commercialization of technologies are needed in this field. 

India, unlike the top developed countries has very poor roads. Talking about a particular road itself includes a number of speed breakers. By just placing a unit like the “Power Generation Unit from Speed Breakers”, so much of energy can be tapped. This energy can be used for the lights on the either sides of the roads and thus much power that is consumed by these lights can be utilized to send power to these villages.
WORKING PRINCIPLE:


 
The project is concerned with generation of electricity from speed breakers-like set up. The load acted upon the speed breaker - setup is there by transmitted to rack and pinion arrangements.

Here the reciprocating motion of the speed-breaker is converted into rotary motion using the rack and pinion arrangement. The axis of the pinion is coupled with the sprocket arrangement. The sprocket arrangement is made of two sprockets. One of larger size and the other of smaller size. Both the sprockets are connected by means of a chain which serves in transmitting power from the larger sprocket to the smaller sprocket. As the power is transmitted from the larger sprocket to the smaller sprocket, the speed that is available at the larger sprocket is relatively multiplied at the rotation of the smaller sprocket.

The axis of the smaller sprocket is coupled to a gear arrangement. Here we have two gears with different diameters. The gear wheel with the larger dimension is coupled to the axis of the smaller sprocket. Hence the speed that has been multiplied at the smaller sprocket wheel is passed on to this gear wheel of larger dimension. The smaller gear is coupled to the larger gear. So as the larger gear rotates at the multiplied speed of the smaller sprocket, the smaller gear following the larger gear still multiplies the speed to more intensity.

 Hence, although the speed due to the rotary motion achieved at the larger sprocket wheel is less, as the power is transmitted to gears, finally the speed is multiplied to a higher speed. This speed which is sufficient to rotate the rotor of a generator is fed into to the rotor of a generator. The rotor which rotates within a static magnetic stator cuts the magnetic flux surrounding it, thus producing the electric motive force (emf). This generated emf is then sent to an inverter, where the generated emf is regulated. This regulated emf is now sent to the storage battery where it is stored during the day time. This current is then utilized in the night time for lighting purposes on the either sides of the road to a considerable distance.

BLOCK DIAGRAM:


SPEED BRAKER
ARRANGE
MENT

RACK & PINION AND CHAIN SPROCKET ARRANGEMENT

GEAR DRIVES

RACK & PINION AND CHAIN SPROCKET ARRANGEMENT

GEAR DRIVES
 





BATTERY


INVERTER

STREET LIGHTS



GENERATOR
 


         


 






OUTPUT POWER CALCULATIONS:

Let us consider,
The mass of a vehicle moving over the speed breaker         =        250Kg (Approximately)
Height of speed brake      =          10 cm
Work done   =          Force x Distance
  Here,
  Force                       =Weight of the Body
                        =250 Kg x 9.81
                        =2452.5 N
Distance traveled by the body  
        =  Height of the speed brake
        =10 m
Output power         =Work done/Sec
                        =(2452.5 x 0.10)/60                                            =4.0875 Watts (For One pushing force)
Power developed for 1 vehicle passing over the speed breaker arrangement for one minute         =             4.0875 watts
Power developed for 60 minutes (1 hr)          =          245.25 watts
Power developed for 24 hours              =          5.866 Kw     
This power is sufficient to burn four street lights in the roads in the night time.

DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS:
         SHAFT (DIA)= 1.5 cm
         Diameter of  flywheel       = 17 cm
         Thickness of flywheel        = 2.8 cm

SPROCKET WHEEL AND CHAIN:
         No of teeth on large sprocket=52
         No of teeth on small sprocket=25
         Dia of large sprocket         =18.4 cm
         Dia of small sprocket = 7.4cm
         Length of chain  =128 cm
         Optimum centre distance = 42cm
         SPRINGS
         Diameter of wire = 1mm
         Mean dia of coil = 20mm
         Free length of spring  = 154mm
         Pitch of the spring = 9mm
         SPUR GEARS
         No of the teeth driver       = 122
         No of teeth drives=28
         Pitch circle diameter driver
                =   200mm
         Pitch circle diameter driven       
                 =  42mm
         No Of Teeth On Rack  = 18
         Rack Length = 240mm
         No Of Teeth On Pinion =38
         Diameter Of Pinion Gear=46mm
         Thickness of pinion gear=26mm
         Length of speed breaker=730mm
         Width of speed breaker=50mm
         Height of speed breaker=100mm



EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION:
The experimental investigation is performed by placing the speed breaker arrangement in a pit with a depth of 75 Cm. Vehicles move over the speed breaker arrangement and the voltage generated is measured by a millimeters and the various readings are plotted in a graph. The graphs are drawn for various parameters as shown below
1)    Voltage generated (Vs) Trial no
2)    Voltage generated (Vs) speed of vehicle
3)    Voltage generated (Vs) Load


Voltage generated (vs.) Trial
READINGS:
LOAD = 270 Kg (Vehicle load + man weight)
Trial no.
Voltage Generated(volts)
1
11.26
2
11.81
3
10.26
4
9.76
5
10.1






Voltage generated (Vs) speed of vehicle
READINGS:
LOAD = 270 Kg (Vehicle load + man weight)

Voltage generated (Vs) Load   
Speed of vehicle=10km/hr





Fig No 6.3 Voltage generated (Vs) Load






 READINGS:

Load(kgs)
Voltage generated(V)
60(man load)
8.33
130
9.45
170
10.22
200
11.23




FABRICATION DETAILS:

The frame structure for the total unit is fabricated using L-Angle frames and ordinary frames. These frames are made of mild steel. They are held to proper dimensions are attached to form a unit with the help of welding. Then the bearings which are of standard make are kept in place with their respective shafts through them and are welded to the frame structure. The shafts are also made of mild steel. Hinges are used to move the speed breaker arrangement by welding it to the frame structure. These hinges are responsible for the movement of the speed breaker in an up and down motion. A rack having eighteen teeth which is made up of mild steel is welded to the speed breaker arrangement. A pinion which is also made up of mild steel and which has Thirty six teeth is fitted on the shaft initially, and welded. This pinion tooth is exactly made to mate with the teeth of the rack. A bicycle sprocket and chain arrangement of standard make is fitted with the larger sprocket on the top shaft and its smaller sprocket on the bottom shaft. The sprocket wheels are welded to the shafts. A fly wheel that is made of cast iron is machined suitably to the precise dimensions in a lathe and is placed on the shaft with its axis coinciding with the axis of the shaft and is welded.

A special stand arrangement is made to seat the 12v DC generator using frames. A 12v DC generator is placed within the seat and is held firm using bolts and nuts. To the shaft of the generator, a small gear made of cast iron is fixed tightly. A larger gear made out of cast iron is machined well and fitted on the shaft. The teeth on the larger gear are made to mate rightly with the smaller gear that is fitted to the generator shaft.
                 Fabrication Model
Fabrication Model Showing Inner Parts
            
Wires are connected to the terminals of the DC generator and its other ends are connected to a Lead-Acid battery. Another wire is taken from these points on the battery and its other ends are connected to the positive and negative terminal of an inverter. An output wire from the inverter is sent to the tube light. The tube light is fitted to a stand. Mild steel sheets are used to now cover the whole setup by welding them to the frame structures. A door is made at one side to enable viewing of the working of all parts. A padlock is welded to the door for safety purposes. The whole setup is finally painted with suitable colors and the final finishing works are completed. To erect the unit practically, a rectangular pit is made on the ground. The unit is now lowered within the pit, with only the speed breaker arrangement visible outside. A rubber sheet of 3 mm thickness is fitted on the top of the speed breaker to bring about an aesthetic look and also to provide protection to moving vehicles.

MATERIALS USED:

         Rack               -           Mild steel     
         Pinion                        -           Mild Iron
         Sprocket wheels-   Mild steel
         Chain             -           Mild steel     
         Spur gears    -           Cast Iron
         Springs          -           Mild steel
         Shaft              -           Mild steel
         Speed breaker -           Mild steel
                                                           
SPECIFICATIONS :
Generator - 12v DC generator
Battery      -   lead acid battery
Inverter      -             250 w AC inverter

ADVANTAGES:
v  Pollution free power generation.
v  Simple construction, mature technology, and easy maintenance.
v  No manual work necessary during generation.
v  Energy available all year round.
v  No fuel transportation problem.
v No consumption of any fossil fuel which is non-renewable source of energy.
v  Uninterrupted power generation during day and night.
v  Maximum utilization of energy.
v  Load to the piston cylinder arrangement is freely got by movement of vehicles.
v  No fuel storage is required.

Power Generating Shoe:

This project will show you how to create a shoe that generates electricity. It does this by using your energy when you walk and converts it into electricity. If you've ever lost power to your cell phone in the middle of nowhere, then you know how frustrating it can be. But with this shoe, you can charge an electronic device anytime, anywhere.
The concept and design are really actually simple. You get a small generator from a rechargeable flashlight, rig it up so you can turn the generator axle when you step down, and channel that energy to a cell phone's (or other device's) charger cord. You can use        this when you are jogging or walking or just when you're sitting down and feel like
tapping your foot.                                                                   

  




CONCLUSIONS:

         The focus now is shifting more and more towards the renewable sources of energy, which are essentially, nonpolluting.
         Energy conservation is the cheapest new source of energy. It is an attractive technology for optimal use of available sources.
         This power generation unit is going to be a demonstration and working model for upcoming engineering students to understand the easy working principles of saving energy.

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