Tuesday, 30 July 2013


HAI dear readers this is new  and interesting        top 5 multi nation earning companys

top no 5;

                      google company got top 5 'th place and this campany turn over 49.5 million dollars  and their tax amount is 2 million dollars
         and their profit amount  15.2 million dollers      

top no 4;


           oracle  company got 4 th place their turn over 29.74  and abroad investment i2.7 million and profit is 21.2 millions

top 3
                  this casco is very huge amount turn over got comparing to previous twos
 and their turn over amount is 46.74 million dollars    their tax amount is 2 million dollars   

top   2

           DO U GUESS   which one is got second       yes    the great    MICRO SOFT   they got 2 nd place total amount 59.5 million dollars  and THEIR tax amount 3.5 million dollars

TOP 1    

         APPLE IS GOT NO 1 place because their turn over amount    110  million dollars    this is the high comparing      to above companys          ,,,,,,,,,congrats  apple              ..............

by moses 

Saturday, 20 July 2013



Keyboard Shorcuts (Microsoft Windows)
1. CTRL+C (Copy)
2. CTRL+X (Cut)
3. CTRL+V (Paste)

4. CTRL+Z (Undo)
5. DELETE (Delete)
6. SHIFT+DELETE (Delete the selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin)
7. CTRL while dragging an item (Copy the selected item)
8. CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item (Create a shortcut to the selected item)
9. F2 key (Rename the selected item)
10. CTRL+RIGHT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word)
11. CTRL+LEFT ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous word)
12. CTRL+DOWN ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph)
13. CTRL+UP ARROW (Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph)
14. CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Highlight a block of text)
SHIFT with any of the arrow keys (Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text in a document)
15. CTRL+A (Select all)
16. F3 key (Search for a file or a folder)
17. ALT+ENTER (View the properties for the selected item)
18. ALT+F4 (Close the active item, or quit the active program)
19. ALT+ENTER (Display the properties of the selected object)
20. ALT+SPACEBAR (Open the shortcut menu for the active window)
21. CTRL+F4 (Close the active document in programs that enable you to have multiple documents opensimultaneou sly)
22. ALT+TAB (Switch between the open items)
23. ALT+ESC (Cycle through items in the order that they had been opened)
24. F6 key (Cycle through the screen elements in a window or on the desktop)
25. F4 key (Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
26. SHIFT+F10 (Display the shortcut menu for the selected item)
27. ALT+SPACEBAR (Display the System menu for the active window)
28. CTRL+ESC (Display the Start menu)
29. ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name (Display the corresponding menu) Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu (Perform the corresponding command)
30. F10 key (Activate the menu bar in the active program)
31. RIGHT ARROW (Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu)
32. LEFT ARROW (Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu)
33. F5 key (Update the active window)
34. BACKSPACE (View the folder onelevel up in My Computer or Windows Explorer)
35. ESC (Cancel the current task)
36. SHIFT when you insert a CD-ROMinto the CD-ROM drive (Prevent the CD-ROM from automatically playing)

Dialog Box - Keyboard Shortcuts
1. CTRL+TAB (Move forward through the tabs)
2. CTRL+SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the tabs)
3. TAB (Move forward through the options)
4. SHIFT+TAB (Move backward through the options)
5. ALT+Underlined letter (Perform the corresponding command or select the corresponding option)
6. ENTER (Perform the command for the active option or button)
7. SPACEBAR (Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box)
8. Arrow keys (Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons)
9. F1 key (Display Help)
10. F4 key (Display the items in the active list)
11. BACKSPACE (Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box)

Microsoft Natural Keyboard Shortcuts
1. Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
2. Windows Logo+BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
3. Windows Logo+D (Display the desktop)
4. Windows Logo+M (Minimize all of the windows)
5. Windows Logo+SHIFT+M (Restorethe minimized windows)
6. Windows Logo+E (Open My Computer)
7. Windows Logo+F (Search for a file or a folder)
8. CTRL+Windows Logo+F (Search for computers)
9. Windows Logo+F1 (Display Windows Help)
10. Windows Logo+ L (Lock the keyboard)
11. Windows Logo+R (Open the Run dialog box)
12. Windows Logo+U (Open Utility Manager)
13. Accessibility Keyboard Shortcuts
14. Right SHIFT for eight seconds (Switch FilterKeys either on or off)
15. Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (Switch High Contrast either on or off)
16. Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK (Switch the MouseKeys either on or off)
17. SHIFT five times (Switch the StickyKeys either on or off)
18. NUM LOCK for five seconds (Switch the ToggleKeys either on or off)
19. Windows Logo +U (Open Utility Manager)
20. Windows Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
21. END (Display the bottom of the active window)
22. HOME (Display the top of the active window)
23. NUM LOCK+Asterisk sign (*) (Display all of the subfolders that are under the selected folder)
24. NUM LOCK+Plus sign (+) (Display the contents of the selected folder)

MMC COnsole Windows Shortcut keys

1. SHIFT+F10 (Display the Action shortcut menu for the selected item)
2. F1 key (Open the Help topic, if any, for the selected item)
3. F5 key (Update the content of all console windows)
4. CTRL+F10 (Maximize the active console window)
5. CTRL+F5 (Restore the active console window)
6. ALT+ENTER (Display the Properties dialog box, if any, for theselected item)
7. F2 key (Rename the selected item)
8. CTRL+F4 (Close the active console window. When a console has only one console window, this shortcut closes the console)

Remote Desktop Connection Navigation
1. CTRL+ALT+END (Open the Microsoft Windows NT Security dialog box)
2. ALT+PAGE UP (Switch between programs from left to right)
3. ALT+PAGE DOWN (Switch between programs from right to left)
4. ALT+INSERT (Cycle through the programs in most recently used order)
5. ALT+HOME (Display the Start menu)
6. CTRL+ALT+BREAK (Switch the client computer between a window and a full screen)
7. ALT+DELETE (Display the Windows menu)
8. CTRL+ALT+Minus sign (-) (Place a snapshot of the active window in the client on the Terminal server clipboard and provide the same functionality as pressing PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)
9. CTRL+ALT+Plus sign (+) (Place asnapshot of the entire client window area on the Terminal server clipboardand provide the same functionality aspressing ALT+PRINT SCREEN on a local computer.)

Microsoft Internet Explorer Keyboard Shortcuts
1. CTRL+B (Open the Organize Favorites dialog box)
2. CTRL+E (Open the Search bar)
3. CTRL+F (Start the Find utility)
4. CTRL+H (Open the History bar)
5. CTRL+I (Open the Favorites bar)
6. CTRL+L (Open the Open dialog box)
7. CTRL+N (Start another instance of the browser with the same Web address)
8. CTRL+O (Open the Open dialog box,the same as CTRL+L)
9. CTRL+P (Open the Print dialog box)
10. CTRL+R (Update the current Web )

Friday, 19 July 2013

pendrive password technics

கணணிப் பயன்பாட்டாளர்களிடையே Pen drive வைப் பயன்படுத்தாதவர்களே இருக்க முடியாது. என்ற நிலைஉருவாக்கி விட்டது ஆனால் அந்த Pen drive நம் கையில் இருக்கும் மட்டும் தான்அதில் இருக்கும் தகவலுக்குப் பாதுகாப்பு நாம் அதை எங்காவது மறந்து போய்விட்டு விட்டோம் என்றால் Pen drive எடுக்கும் எவரும் நமது Pen drive வில்
இருக்கும் தகவலை பார்கவோ அல்லது அதை Copy பண்ணி எடுக்கவோ முடியும்.
இதற்காக தற்போது imation போன்ற சில Pen drive தயாரிக்கும் நிறுவனங்கள் தாம் தயாரிக்கும் Pen drive க்கு Password போட்டு பாதுகாக்கக் கூடியவாறு அதனுடன்
சிறிய மென்பொருளையும் இணைத்து தருகிறார்கள் ஆனால் அந்த மென்பொருட்களை இந்த
வகை Pen drive களுக்கு மட்டும் தான் பயன்படுத்த முடிகிறது.

அப்ப மற்றவர்கள் என்ன பண்ண…………… ?
ஆமாம் அவர்களுக்காக உள்ள மென்பொருள் தான் Rohos Mini Drive இதன் முலம் Pen driveவின் ஒரு பகுதியை தனியாக Patition பண்ணி அந்த பகுதிக்கு Password கொடுக்க

செயற்படுத்தும் முறை
முதலில் கீழ் உள்ள சுட்டியில் இருந்து மென்பொருளை தரவிறக்கிக் கொள்ளவும்.அந்த மென்பொருளை உங்கள் கணணியில் install பண்ணவும்.
மென்பொருளைத் தரவிறக்க : http://www.rohos.com/rohos_mini.exe
Pen drive கணணியில் இணைத்து விட்டு install பண்ணிய அந்த மென்பொருளை இயக்கவும்.
அதில் Setup USB key என்பதை Click செய்தவுடன் உங்கள் Pen drive பற்றிய தகவலை காட்டும் அதன் கீழ் Password கேட்பார்கள் .
அந்த தகவல் சரியாயில் அதில் நீங்கள் கொடுக்க விரும்பும் Password டைக் கொடுத்துவிட்டு Create disk ஐ கிளிக் செய்யவும்.
( அந்த தகவலில் ஏதேனும் பிழையிருப்பின் Change என்பதை கிளிக் செய்து தகவலை
மாற்றலாம் )
அது தானகவே உங்கள் Pen drive இன் ஒரு பகுதிக்கு Password போட்டு விடும் பின் உங்கள் pen drive ஐ கணணியில் இருந்து நீக்கிவிட்டு மீண்டும் இணைக்கவும்.
பின் கணணியில் இணைத்தவுடன் Pen drive வில் இருக்கும் Rohos mini.exe என்பதை Double click செய்து உங்கள் password கொடுத்து விட்டு My computer ஐ open பண்ணிப் பார்த்தால் புது Drive ஒன்று இருக்கும். அந்த Drive தான் நீங்கள் password கொடுத்திருக்கும் drive.
அதனுள் நீங்கள் பாதுகாக்க வேண்டிய File போட்டு வைத்துவிட வேண்டியது தான் மீண்டும்அந்தPassword போட்ட drive ஐ மூடுவதற்கு படத்தில் உள்ளது போல் உங்கள் taskbar இல் இருக்கும் அந்த Icon ஐ Right click செய்து Disconnect என்பதை Click செய்யவும்


thermodynamics is stated in two ways

1.kelvin planck statement
2.clausius statements

we sea full deatais below
1' kelvin planck statements
      it is impossible to construct an operating device working on a cyclic processs which produce no other effect then the extraction of energy as heat from a signal thermal reservoir and performs an equivelent amount of work     otherwise it is impossibleto construct an engineworking on  cyclic process which converts all the heat energy supplied into equivalent amount of useful work



                        DETECTING OF BOMBS 




                     Moses dhilip kumar





                              “ Bomb sniffing dogs today, nanotechnology tomorrow”

                             The challenges in transportation security, most notably air transport, evolve around detecting explosives before they reach their target, i.e. get on a plane for instance. The two technology-based methods of explosive detection are either nuclear-based (probing the screened object with highly penetrating radiation) or rely on trace detection. Trace detection techniques use separation and detection technologies, such as mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, chemical luminescence, or ion mobility spectrometry, to measure the chemical properties of vapor or particulate matter collected from passengers or luggage. All these methods require bulky and expensive equipment, costing hundreds of thousands of dollars apiece. This results in a situation where the effort and technology involved in the detection of explosives are orders of magnitude more expensive than the effort and costs incurred by terrorists in their deployment. Today, the cheapest, very reliable, and most mobile form of explosive detection is decidedly low-tech - dogs. The olfactory ability of dogs is sensitive enough to detect trace amounts of many compounds, which makes them very effective in screening objects. A dog can search an entire airport in a couple of hours. Using a chemical analysis machine would mean wiping down nearly every surface in the airport with a sterile cotton pad, then sticking those pads, one by one, into a computer for analysis. Given the recent advances of nanotechnology, researchers are now trying to develop the next generation of explosives sensors that are accurate, fast, portable and inexpensive – and don't need to be fed. In contrast to the currently used machines, dogs have the advantage of being relatively uncomplicated. "The [chemical analysis machines] that are used as an alternative to dogs are just extremely, unbelievably advanced and complex," says Rick Charles, an expert on aviation security at Georgia State University. "They involve things like ion mobility spectrometry – processes that literally do a molecular analysis of the contents of the container." The average bomb-sniffing dog may pee on a suitcase, but at least he won't lose his ability to sniff if someone bumps into him the wrong way. (quoted from an article in Salon "On the prowl with the secret bomb dogs")




                             The challenge of detecting explosives on people or objects is considerable: often there are only minute quantities available; there is a broad range of effective explosives that need to be screened for; all current detection technologies, including dogs, require close proximity to the person, package, or vehicle being screened. Among the major detection techniques, trace detection suffers from the fact that available vapor plumes are normally too dilute for detection at a distance. Another major drawback is that current explosives sensors are bulky and expensive and cannot be miniaturized (think of the screening gates at airports). Furthermore, the effectiveness of chemical trace analysis is highly dependent on three distinct              steps:

(1) sample collection,

(2) sample analysis, and

(3) comparison of results

 with known standards. If any of these steps is suboptimal, the test may fail to detect explosives that are present. These issues set the parameters for the design and development of nanotechnology-based, next generation bomb sniffing equipment. The goal in developing nanotechnology enabled sensors is to achieve reliable, extremely sensitive and inexpensive sensors (at least a thousand times cheaper than today's equipment) that can be mass produced and deployed in large enough numbers so that the cost of detection by law enforcement will be less than the cost of deployment by terrorists.







                            One example of a next-generation nanotechnology explosives detector is a nanocomposite film that shows very fast fluorescence response to trace vapors of explosives such as TNT, DNT or NB. Developed by researchers in China, a silica film doped with nitrogen-containing macrocyclic molecules - porphyrins - shows a fluorescent response to even trace levels of explosives such as TNT .

Two key features of these mesostructured films, namely the porous structure and the large surface area, are believed to be principally responsible for the observed remarkable sensing performance.


                            SEM image of floppy diskette with traces of C-4 explosive

                                        PREPARATION OF NANOMATERIALS




The unique mesoporous structure provides a necessary condition for the facile diffusion of analytes to sensing elements, while the large surface area considerably enhances the interaction sites between analyte molecules and sensing elements, and thereby further improves the detection sensitivity.

 "Since the preparation is very easy, the used materials are inexpensive, organic sensing elements become stable enough in the inorganic matrix, and the synthesized sensing films are easily incorporated into inexpensive and portable electronic devices, this explored method should be a promising alternative to other developed explosive detection methods" says Guangtao Li from the Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics & Molecular Engineering of the Ministry of Education at Tsinghua University, Beijing. Another chemical sensor approach is based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Developed at the NASA Ames Research Center, this platform provides an array of sensing elements where each sensor in the array consists of a CNT and an interdigitated electrode as a transducer. Due to the interaction between nanotube devices and gas molecules, the electron configuration is changed in the nanostructured sensing device, therefore, the changes in the electronic signal such as current or voltage can be observed. By measuring the conductivity change of the CNT device, the concentration of the chemical species, such as a certain type of molecule, can be measured.

Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. T http://www.nanowerk.com/spotlight/id1138.jpghis nanosensor technology can extend its application in civilian areas such as explosives detection, monitoring filter bed breakthroughs, personnel badge detectors, embedded suit hermiticity sensors, and other applications. Additionally, a wireless capability with the sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

Portable, cheap and fast explosives detector built with nanotechnology :

 Due to the the increased use of modern bombs in terrorist attacks worldwide, where the amount of metal used is becoming very small, the development of a new approach capable of rapidly and cost-efficiently detecting volatile chemical emission from explosives is highly desirable and urgently necessary nowadays.
The trained dogs and physical methods such as gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, nuclear quadrupole resonance, electron capture detection as well as electrochemical approaches are highly sensitive and selective, but some of these techniques are expensive and others are not easily fielded in a small, low-power package. As a complementary method, however, chemical sensors provide new approaches to the rapid detection of ultra-trace analytes from explosives, and can be easily incorporated into inexpensive and portable microelectronic devices.

 In comparison to conjugated-polymer based sensors, the fabrication of these hybrid films is very simple, the used materials are inexpensive, and the trapped organic sensing elements also become very stable in the inert silica matrix." Two key features of these mesostructured films, namely the porous structure and the large surface area, are believed to be principally responsible for the observed remarkable sensing performance. The unique mesoporous structure provides a necessary condition for the facile diffusion of analytes to sensing elements, while the large surface area considerably enhances the interaction sites between analyte molecules and sensing elements, and thereby further improves the detection sensitivity.                                        
                                                                            OLD METHOD


                                                                        NEW NANOMETHOD
                         This is the most important component in this nano detecting device
Other projected products most commonly involve using nanosensors to build smaller integrated circuits, as well as incorporating them into various other commodities made using other forms of nanotechnology for use in a variety of situations including transportation, communication, improvements in structural integrity, and robotics. Nanosensors may also eventually be valuable as more accurate monitors of material states for use in systems where size and weight are constrained, such as in satellites and other aeronautic machines.
Existing nanosensors
Currently, the most common mass-produced functioning nanosensors exist in the biological world as natural receptors of outside stimulation. For instance, sense of smell, especially in animals in which it is particularly strong, such as dogs, functions using receptors that sense nanosized molecules. Certain plants, too, use nanosensors to detect sunlight; various fish use nanosensors to detect minuscule vibrations in the surrounding water; and many insects detect sex pheromones using nanosensors.
Chemical sensors, too, have been built using nanotubes to detect various properties of gaseous molecules. Carbon nanotubes have been used to sense ionization of gaseous molecules while nanotubes made out of titanium have been employed to detect atmospheric concentrations of hydrogen at the molecular level. Many of these involve a system by which nanosensors are built to have a specific pocket for another molecule. When that particular molecule, and only that specific molecule, fits into the nanosensor, and light is shone upon the nanosensor, it will reflect different wavelengths of light and, thus, be a different color

 Production methods of nanosensors:
There are currently several hypothesized ways to produce nanosensors. Top-down lithography is the manner in which most integrated circuits are now made. It involves starting out with a larger block of some material and carving out the desired form. These carved out devices, notably put to use in specific microelectromechanical systems used as microsensors, generally only reach the micro size, but the most recent of these have begun to incorporate nanosized components.
Another way to produce nanosensors is through the bottom-up method, which involves assembling the sensors out of even more minuscule components, most likely individual atoms or molecules. This would involve moving atoms of a particular substance one by one into particular positions which, though it has been achieved in laboratory tests using tools such as atomic force microscopes, is still a significant difficulty, especially to do en masse, both for logistic reasons as well as economic ones. Most likely, this process would be used mainly for building starter molecules for self-assembling sensors.
                                                       SIZE OF NANOSENSOR
(A) An example of a DNA molecule used as a starter for larger self-assembly. (B) An atomic force microscope image of a self-assembled DNA nanogrid. Individual DNA tiles self-assemble into a highly ordered periodic two-dimensional DNA nanogrid.

The third way, which promises far faster results, involves self-assembly, or “growing” particular nanostructures to be used as sensors. This most often entails one of two types of assembly. The first involves using a piece of some previously created or naturally formed nanostructure and immersing it in free atoms of its own kind. After a given period, the structure, having an irregular surface that would make it prone to attracting more molecules as a continuation of its current pattern, would capture some of the free atoms and continue to form more of itself to make larger components of nano sensors.

                         The purpose of using nano-sensors in this device particularly to identify the bombs before reaching the airport and by using nanogrid is mainly to detect the bombs after it get sensed by the nanosensors.


Thursday, 18 July 2013

ALTERNATIVE FUELS by mosesdhilip kumar

                                                  ALTERNATIVE FUELS
                          The fuels play an important role in human life for example petroleum, gasoline use to operate automobile engines, produce power, to operate power turbine and more. But this fuel is non renewable energy because they take millions of years to form and Conventional. This fuels include: fossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal, propane, and natural gas), and nuclear materials such as uranium. The production and use of fossil fuels raise environmental concerns. The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion tonnes (21.3 gigatonnes) of carbon dioxide (CO2) per year, but it is estimated that natural processes can only absorb about half of that amount, so there is a net increase of 10.65 billion tonnes of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year (one tonne of n 90% of greenhouse gas emissions come from the combustion of fossil fuels.
                                This fossil fuel has high cost, environmental concerns. So we desired to introduce about Alternative fuels and encouraged to use this fuel because this have more advantage than fossil fuels and less cost. By using the Alternative fuels we can reduce the greenhouse gases then more suitable for IC engines to increase the engine efficiency to considerable range. There are many types and it can be used as petrol, diesel. These Alternative fuels can be used in IC engine. Most important Alternative fuels are alcohol.
                                  Alternative fuels, also known as non-conventional or advanced fuels, are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other than conventional fuels. Some well known alternative fuels include biodiesel, bioalcohol (methanol, ethanol, butanol), chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells), [GreenNH3] non fossil, hydrogen, non-fossil methane, non-fossil natural gas, vegetable oil, and other biomass sources. Methanol fuel has been proposed as a future biofuel. methanol for racing purposes has largely been based on methanol produced from syngas derived from natural gas and therefore this methanol would not be considered a biofuel. These Alternative fuels are more economical so many countries are interested to produce this Alternative fuels and also used wide range in most countries in the world as fuels in automobiles.
                      Brazil was until recently the largest producer of alcohol fuel in the world, typically fermenting ethanol from sugarcane. The country produces a total of 18 billion liters (4.8 billion gallons) annually, of which 3.5 billion liters are exported, 2 billion of them to the U.S.
                       Russia has reduced its dependency on oil by using methanol made from the destructive pyrolysis of eucalyptus wood and fibre. However, this system is less likely to be emulated elsewhere, due to the disadvantages of methanol fuel.
                         Although alcohol used as alternative fuel they have main some demerits i.e. may cause blindness or death. So we desired to reduce the demerits due to mix the methanal with compressed air.
                          Let we see the types, composition, application, advantages, demerits and solution for that demerits.
                    Alternative fuels dispensers at a regular gasoline station in Arlington, Virginia.B20 biodiesel at the left and E85 ethanol at the right. Biofuels are also considered a renewable source. Although renewable energy is used mostly to generate electricity, it is often assumed that some form of renewable energy or at least it is used to create alternative fuels.
                          Methanol and Ethanol fuel are typically primary sources of energy; they are convenient fuels for storing and transporting energy. These alcohols can be used in "internal combustion engine as alternative fuels", with butanol also having known advantages, such as being the only alcohol-based motor fuel that can be transported readily by existing petroleum-Product pipeline networks, instead of only by tanker trucks and railroad cars


Hydrogen is an emissionless fuel. The by product is pure water which is harmless to our earth.
                     Ammonia can be used as fuel. A small machine can be set up to create the fuel and it is used where it is made. Benefits of ammonia include, no more need for oil wars, zero emissions, and distributed production reducing transport and related pollution.
Hydrogen is an emissionless fuel. The by product is pure water which is harmless to our earth.


HCNG (or H2CNG) is a mixture of compressed natural gas and 4-9 percent hydrogen by energy.


The air engine is an emission-free piston engine using compressed air as fuel. Unlike hydrogen, compressed air is about one-tenth as expensive as fossil oil, making it an economically attractive alternative fuel.


Compressed natural gas (CNG) is a cleaner burning alternative to conventional petroleum automobile fuels. The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines. CNG vehicles require a greater amount of space for fuel storage than conventional gasoline power vehicles because CNG takes up more space for each GGE (Gallon of Gas Equivalent). Almost any existing gasoline car can be turned into a bi-fuel (gasoline/CNG) car. However, natural gas is a finite resource like all fossil fuels, and production is expected to peak gas soon after.
                                           Methanol and ethanol can both be derived from fossil fuels, biomass, or perhaps most simply, from carbon dioxide and water. Ethanol has most commonly been produced through fermentation of sugars, and methanol has most commonly been produced from synthesis gas, but there are more modern ways to obtain these fuels. Enzymes can be used instead of fermentation. Methanol is the simpler molecule, and ethanol can be made from methanol. Methanol can be produced industrially from nearly any biomass, including animal waste, or from carbon dioxide and water or steam by first converting the biomass to synthesis gas in a gasifier. It can also be produced in a laboratory using electrolysis or enzymes.
As a fuel, methanol and ethanol both have advantages and disadvantages over fuels such as petrol (gasoline) and diesel fuel. In spark ignition engines, both alcohols can run at a much higher exhaust gas recirculation rates and with higher compression ratios. Both alcohols have a high octane rating, with ethanol at 109 RON (Research Octane Number), 90 MON (Motor Octane Number), (which equates to 99.5 AKI) and methanol at 109 RON, 89 MON (which equates to 99 AKI). Note that AKI refers to 'Anti-Knock Index' which averages the RON and MON ratings (RON+MON)/2, and is used on U.S. gas station pumps. Ordinary European petrol is typically 95 RON, 85 MON, equal to 90 AKI. As a compression ignition engine fuel, both alcohols create very little particulates, but their low cetane number means that an ignition improver like glycol must be mixed into the fuel with approx. 5%.
This include both fuel system compatibility and lambda compensation of fuel delivery with fuel injection engines featuring closed loop lambda control. In some engines ethanol may degrade some compositions of plastic or rubber fuel delivery components designed for conventional petrol, and also be unable to lambda compensate the fuel properly.
Methanol combustion is: 2CH3OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 4H2O + heat
Ethanol combustion is: C2H5OH + 3O2 → 2CO2 + 3H2O + heat
                                        Propanol and butanol are considerably less toxic and less volatile than methanol. In particular, butanol has a high flashpoint of 35 °C, which is a benefit for fire safety, but may be a difficulty for starting engines in cold weather. The concept of flash point is however not directly applicable to engines as the compression of the air in the cylinder means that the temperature is several hundred degrees Celsius before ignition takes place.
                   The fermentation processes to produce propanol and butanol from cellulose are fairly tricky to execute, and the Weizmann organism (Clostridium acetobutylicum) currently used to perform these conversions produces an extremely unpleasant smell, and this must be taken into consideration when designing and locating a fermentation plant. This organism also dies when the butanol content of whatever it is fermenting rises to 7%. For comparison, yeast dies when the ethanol content of its feedstock hits 14%. Specialized strains can tolerate even greater ethanol concentrations - so-called turbo yeast can withstand up to 16% ethanol. However, if ordinary Saccharomyces yeast can be modified to improve its ethanol resistance, scientists may yet one day produce a strain of the Weizmann organism with a butanol resistance higher than the natural boundary of 7%. This would be useful because butanol has a higher energy density than ethanol, and because waste fibre left over from sugar crops used to make ethanol could be made into butanol, raising the alcohol yield of fuel crops without there being a need for more crops to be plant.
                   Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical with formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable, liquid with a distinctive odor that is very similar to but slightly sweeter than ethanol (drinking alcohol). At room temperature it is a polar liquid and is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethanol. It is also used for producing biodiesel via transesterification reaction.
Methanol is produced naturally in the anaerobic metabolism of many varieties of bacteria, and is ubiquitous in the environment. As a result, there is a small fraction of methanol vapor in the atmosphere. Over the course of several days, atmospheric methanol is oxidized with the help of sunlight to carbon dioxide and water.
Methanol burns in air forming carbon dioxide and water:
2 CH3OH + 3 O2 → 2 CO2 + 4 H2O
A methanol flame is almost colorless in bright sunlight.
Because of its toxic properties, methanol is frequently used as a denaturant additive for ethanol manufactured for industrial uses — this addition of methanol exempts industrial ethanol from liquor excise taxation. Methanol is often called wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood.
Today synthesis gas is most commonly produced from the methane component in natural gas rather than from coal. Three processes are commercially practiced. At moderate pressures of 4 MPa (40 atm) and high temperatures (around 850 °C), methane reacts with steam on a nickel catalyst to produce syngas according to the chemical equation:
CH4 + H2O → CO + 3 H2
This reaction, commonly called steam-methane reforming or SMR, is endothermic and the heat transfer limitations place limits on the size of and pressure in the catalytic reactors used. Methane can also undergo partial oxidation with molecular oxygen to produce syngas, as the following equation shows:
2 CH4 + O2 → 2 CO + 4 H2
This reaction is exothermic and the heat given off can be used in-situ to drive the steam-methane reforming reaction. When the two processes are combined, it is referred to as autothermal reforming. The ratio of CO and H2 can be adjusted to some extent by the water-gas shift reaction,
CO + H2O → CO2 + H2,
to provide the appropriate stoichiometry for methanol synthesis.
It is worth noting that the production of synthesis gas from methane produces 3 moles of hydrogen gas for every mole of carbon monoxide, while the methanol synthesis consumes only 2 moles of hydrogen gas for every mole of carbon monoxide. One way of dealing with the excess hydrogen is to inject carbon dioxide into the methanol synthesis reactor, where it, too, reacts to form methanol according to the equation:
CO2 + 3 H2 → CH3OH + H2O
Although natural gas is the most economical and widely used feedstock for methanol production, many other feedstocks can be used to produce syngas via steam reforming.


  •                                                                  Alternative fuels used in standard or modified internal combustion engines (i.e. biofuels or combustion hydrogen).
  • propulsion systems not based on internal combustion, such as those based on electricity (for example, all-electric or hybrid vehicles), compressed air, or fuel cells (i.e. hydrogen fuel cells).
Currently, cars can be classified into the following groups:
  • Internal combustion engine cars, which may use
    • petrol, fuel and/or biofuels (e.g. alcohol, biodiesel and biobutanol)
    • compressed natural gas used by natural gas vehicles
    • Hydrogen in hydrogen vehicles.
  • Advanced technology cars such as hybrid vehicles which use petroleum and/or biofuels, albeit far more efficiently.
  • Plug-in hybrids, that can store and use externally produced electricity in addition to petroleum.
  • electric cars
                       In oil producing countries with little refinery capacity, oil is sometimes burned to produce electricity. Renewable energy technologies such as solar power, wind power, micro hydro, biomass and biofuels might someday be used to replace some of these generators, but today the primary alternatives remain large scale hydroelectricity, nuclear and coal-fired generation.
                     Methanol is used on a limited basis to fuel internal combustion engines. Pure methanol is required by rule to be used in Champcars, Monster Trucks, USAC sprint cars (as well as midgets, modifieds, etc.), and other dirt track series such as World of Outlaws, and Motorcycle Speedway. Methanol is also used, as the primary fuel ingredient since the late 1940s, in the powerplants for radio control, control line and free flight airplanes (as methanol is required in the "glow-plug" engines that primarily power them), cars and trucks, from such an engine's use of a platinum filament glow plug being able to ignite the methanol vapor through a catalytic reaction. Drag racers and mud racers also use methanol as their primary fuel source. Methanol is required with a supercharged engine in a Top Alcohol Dragster.
                             These are the types, properties, applications, advantages and demerits of Alternative fuels. The demerits of some of Alternative fuels are reduce by mixing of two or more Alternative fuels to get desired properties of Alternative fuels. We can say strictly the Alternative fuels will have important role in human life.