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Tuesday, 21 February 2017

Smart Materials

                      Smart Materials

Science and technology have made amazing developments in the design of electronics and machinery using standard materials, which do not have particularly special properties (i.e. steel, aluminum, gold). Imagine the range of possibilities, which exist for special materials that have properties scientists can manipulate. Some such materials have the ability to change shape or size simply by adding a little bit of heat, or to change from a liquid to a solid almost instantly when near a magnet; these materials are called smart materials. 

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       Shape memory alloys (SMA's) are metals, which exhibit two very unique properties, pseudo-elasticity, and the shape memory effect. Arne Olander first observed these unusual properties in 1938 (Oksuta and Wayman 1998), but not until the 1960's were any serious
research advances made in the field of shape memory alloys. The most effective and widely used alloys include NiTi (Nickel - Titanium), CuZnAl, and CuAlNi.

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The two unique properties described above are made possible through a solid state phase change, that is a molecular rearrangement, which occurs in the shape memory alloy. Typically when one thinks of a phase change a solid to liquid or liquid to gas change is the first idea that comes to mind. A solid state phase change is similar in that a molecular rearrangement is occurring, but the molecules remain closely packed so that the substance remains a solid. In most shape memory alloys, a temperature change of only about 10°C is necessary to initiate this phase change. The two phases, which occur in shape memory alloys, are Martensite, and Austenite

Martensite, is the relatively soft and easily deformed phase of shape memory alloys, which exists at lower temperatures. The molecular structure in this phase is twinned which is the configuration shown in the middle of Figure .Upon deformation this phase takes on the second form ,on the right. Austenite, the stronger phase of shape memory alloys, occurs at higher temperatures.. The un-deformed Martensite phase is the same size and shape as the cubic Austenite phase on a macroscopic scale, so that no change in size or shape is visible in shape memory alloys until the Martensite is deformed.Image result for smart materialsImage result for smart materials

Thursday, 16 February 2017

energy doors

                  Energy Doors

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Energy Doors – as the name suggests, doors that can produce electricity. The input is the human energy. The electricity produced can be stored in a battery or can be used directly to provide power to small electrical appliances.
There are two types of energy doors:
1.      Mechanical Energy Doors
2.      Electronic Energy Doors.
The energy door which has gears, flywheels, and an alternator is called mechanical energy doors. The energy door which has lightning piezoelectric components is called as electronic energy doors.
Mechanical Energy doors can be used in public places to produce electricity and electronic energy doors can be used in private buildings, as they produce more electricity than mechanical systems.
The door is connected to a mechanism which has either mechanical components or electronic components. When the door is opened or closed, the given human power, which causes the mechanical motion, is converted into electricity by the alternator or lightning piezoelectric component.
This energy door can be mainly used for powering lighting system using LED’s as they require only small amount of electricity. This reduces the electricity bill and mainly, it reduces the usage of fossil fuels used to produce electricity which cause pollution to Image result for power produce from doorsthe environment.

The main aim of the energy door is to save the environment by providing power using freely available human power without causing any pollution to the environment.Related image

Tuesday, 14 February 2017


                                                       AIR ENGINE
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                      The air engine is an emission-free piston engine that uses compressed air as a source of energy.  The expansion of compressed air may be used to drive the pistons in a modified piston engine. Efficiency of operation is gained through the use of environmental heat at normal temperature to warm the otherwise cold expanded air from the storage tank. This non-adiabatic expansion has the potential to greatly increase the efficiency of the machine. The only exhaust is cold air (−15 °C), which could also be used to air condition the car. The source for air is a pressurized carbon-fiber tank. Air is delivered to the engine via a rather conventional injection system. Unique crank design within the engine increases the time during which the air charge is warmed from ambient sources and a two stage process allows improved heat transfer rates

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The Stirling engine is a heat engine that is vastly different from an internal combustion engine. Stirling engines have two pistons that create a 90-degree phase angle and two different temperature spaces. The working gas in the engine is perfectly sealed, and doesn't go in and out to the atmosphere. The Stirling engine uses a Stirling cycle, which is unlike the cycles used in normal internal combustion engines

  • The gas used inside Stirling engine never leaves the engine. There are no exhaust valves that vent high-pressure gases as in petrol or diesel engine, and there are no explosions taking place.
  • The Stirling cycle uses external heat source, which could be anything from gasoline to solar energy to heat produced by decaying plants. No combustion takes place inside cylinder of the engine. 

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Friday, 3 February 2017


                                        WORLD UN FORGETTABLE BLACK DAY

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Yes friends now i want to share unforgettable Japan Nuclear accident ,  surely that day was a another black day of world history,

                              13/3/2011 Monday (4:30a.m.) 

                   A second hydrogen explosion occurred at an earthquake-damaged nuclear reactor north of Toyko Monday. The blast is said to have been caused by a build-up of gas at Fukushima's station's No. 3 reactor

japanese government officals have said, however, that there was no large release of radiation, and that the reactors themselves were not breached. They continue to monitor the situation.

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                    In the meantime, Japanese government officials are now estimating the death toll from latest week's earthquake and tsunami could be as high as 10,000, although the official toll is 1,627 dead, 1,720 injured and 1,962 missing. Over 350,000 people are believed to be living in emergency shelters. There are reports from the Kyodo news agency that 2,000 bodies have been recovered on the shores of Miyagi prefecture, where the tsunami hit on Friday.
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                  Japan's Prime Minister Naoto Kan said Monday: 'Our country faces its worst crisis since the end of the war 65 years ago. (But) I'm convinced that the Japanese people, working together, can overcome this' because this is very worst time to save people  climate not co operate the situation 
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         In my point of view lot of engineers live in this world each and every one responsible for this , because we can change the this type of hazards , we can find new methods to produce electricity otherwise this will definitely happens in future  yesterday japan today may be we or tomorrow  

friends you know this 

Number of Reactors world-wide

if this will continue we never smile even what mistakes done this kids for our mistakes

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 Think friends support green energy creation , thank you so much for read this article 

by moses dhilip kumar


                              ALGAE AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FOR DIESEL

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                                                   In view of the depleting oil reserves and exponential rise in petroleum prices, the search for alternative sources of fuel is very timely and important. The present paper addresses the underlying issues in biodiesel production from biomaterials and sustainable production and supply of first-generation biofuels, especially the one from jatropha. The agencies and research institutions involved in the production of biofuels and the national and international efforts made in this regard are discussed here. There is also a dire need of a step towards large-scale production and supply of second-generation biofuels, 
although in infant stage, to strengthen the world economy in general and Indian economy in particular. However, the production of biofuels are likely to have serious socio-economic implications especially to the lesser developed societies. This needs serious attention from policy makers and public at large.

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                                                                 The word algae represent a large group of different organisms from different phylogenetic groups, representing many taxonomic divisions. In general algae can be referred to as plant-like organisms that are usually photosynthetic and aquatic, but do not have true roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissue and have simple reproductive structures. They are distributed worldwide in the sea, in freshwater and in wastewater. Most are microscopic, but some are quite large, e.g. some marine seaweeds that can exceed 50 m in length.       

The unicellular forms are known as microalgae where as the multicellular forms comprise macroalgae.

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Algae Biodiesel is a good replacement for standard crop Biodiesels like soy acanola
Up to 70% of algae biomass is usable oils
Algae does not compete for land and space with other agricultural crops
Algae can survive in water of high salt content and use water that was previously deemed unusable

Thursday, 2 February 2017


                                  DIESEL  ENGINE 

                   “The right step in the right path to limelight the world for a

                          Green fuel future in the automobile industry

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On an average 95% of energy requirements all over the world are derived from conventional energy sources such as coal, natural gas and Petroleum. It is estimated that these reserves are not going to last for not more than 50 years. Hence comes the problem of energy crisis. In this context of fossil fuel crisis, the importance of alternative fuel research for Internal. Combustion engines needs importance. Vegetable oils – due to their properties being close to diesel fuel, may be a promising alternative for its use in diesel engines. Bio-diesel is non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable fuel with the potential to reduce engine exhaust emissions.
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           The idea deals with the usage of raw Jatropha curcas oil as well as blends of varying proportions of Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) and Diesel in a single cylinder diesel engine with and without thermal barrier coated piston. Significant improvements in engine performance and emission characteristics were observed for JME. The use of JME along with diesel fuel has significantly reduced HC and CO emissions and to reduce NOx emissions Hybrid fuel concept is followed.

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                                                The main objective of this topic is to reclaim the spent foundry sand to promote green manufacturing practices around the world. The process of reclamation can bring considerably more cost reduction and a contamination free environment around the foundry area.  The current method of reclamation has a reclamation efficiency of 35-40% which is comparatively less than the sand intake. This proposed process of reclamation will bring an efficiency of 85-90% which will promote green manufacturing practices in the field of manufacturing.

Requirements of reclaimed sand

 The technical requirements of reclaimed sand are

         Superior hot strength
         Low binder additions
         Low sand to metal ratio
     •         Good permeability   

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Wednesday, 1 February 2017


                     HISTORY OF ROBOTICS
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                                                       Many ancient mythologies include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus (Vulcan to the Romans), the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, and Galatea, the mythical statue of Pygmalion that came to life. In Greek drama, Deus Ex Machina was contrived as a dramatic device that usually involved lowering a deity by wires into the play to solve a seemingly impossible problem.

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                               In the 4th century BC, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The Pigeon". Hero of Alexandria (10–70 AD), a Greek mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, and described machines powered by air pressure, steam and water. Su Song built a clock tower in China in 1088 featuring mechanical figurines that chimed the hours.Image result for ROBOTICS

                                                   Al-Jazari (1136–1206), a Muslim inventor during the Artuqid dynasty, designed and constructed a number of automated machines, including kitchen appliances, musical automata powered by water, and programmable automata. The robots appeared as four musicians on a boat in a lake, entertaining guests at royal drinking parties. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs (cams) that bumped into little levers that operated percussion instruments. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations.

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what is this systemImage result for night vision cars

                             It is a known fact that after dark it is impossible for man to see beyond a few metres in length without the correct illumination and this illumination also has its constraints and during the night times the reflectivity also increases and it is more a judgemental driving rather than a calculative one. The night vision helps the drivers in such cases. It makes a negative image of the image captured by the camera and illuminates the darker part thus enabling the driver to see what lies ahead by looking at the monitor that has been attached in front of the diver on the dash board or some other convenient part of the steering.

how its working
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Night vision devices (NVD) work in the near-infrared band at a wavelength of about 1 Micrometer. For comparison, human visual range is about 0.4 to 0.7 micrometers. Unlike thermal imaging systems, which may operate on complete darkness using heat radiation signatures, well beyond the visible light spectrum, NVD's rely on ambient light, often from the moon and stars. The intensifier tubes use the photoelectric effect. As a photon collides with a detector plate, the metal ejects several electrons that are then amplified into a cascade of electrons that light up a phosphor screen. Often a dim star in the sky is enough to illuminate an entire field.
The night vision image does not have color information, and hence monochromatic displays are sufficient. A green phosphor (P22) display is generally used as the human eye is most sensitive to the color green in this wave length, which falls in the middle of the visible light spectrum.
The latest generation of NVD use a green yellow Phosphor (P43), and gives the operator a much more comfortable viewing experience. Current development by Photonis, have also created a gray scale or black & white Phosphor (P45).

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Modern Hybrid Vehicles and its uses

           Modern Hybrid Vehicles and its uses 
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Hydraulic Hybrids..:                              
                 A hydraulic-diesel hybrid powertrain allows for the use of a less powerful and more fuel efficient diesel engine operating at its optimal setting and less frequently to obtain the same power as a less efficient engine directly powering the wheels. There are two accumulators; one high-pressure and the other low-pressure. Inside the accumulators are nitrogen bladders. When hydraulic fluid accumulates, the nitrogen bladders are compressed, and energy is stored. The low pressure accumulator acts like a reservoir containing hydraulic fluid.
                                            During braking, energy that is usually dissipated through heat is used to operate a pump that takes hydraulic fluid from the low-pressure accumulator to
pressurize the high pressure accumulator. This energy stored in the high-pressure nitrogen bladder is then used to accelerate the vehicle. During acceleration, the pressurized fluid leaves the high pressure accumulator and powers the pump/motor. The fluid then returns to the low pressure accumulator. The diesel engine is used when the high-pressure accumulator is depressurized and the vehicle is running at steady state.

Image result for hydraulic hybrid vehicleMajor components 
•           A high-pressure accumulator stores energy, as a battery would in a hybrid electric vehicle, by using hydraulic fluid to compress nitrogen gas stored inside each accumulator.
•           A low-pressure reservoir stores hydraulic fluid after it has been used by the pump/motor.
•           A rear drive pump/motor converts high-pressure hydraulic fluid into rotating power for the wheels and transmits braking energy back to the high-pressure accumulator.
•           An engine pump transmits pressurized hydraulic fluid to the rear drive pump/motor, the high-pressure accumulator, or both.
•           A hybrid controller monitors the driver's acceleration and braking actions and commands the hybrid system components.
Regenerative braking — When stopping the vehicle, the hybrid controller uses the energy from the wheels by pumping fluid from the low pressure reservoir into the high pressure accumulator. When the vehicle starts accelerating, this stored energy is used to accelerate the vehicle. This process allows hydraulic hybrids to recover and reuse over 70% of the energy normally wasted during breaking. 
Optimum engine control — The engine pump pressurizes and transfers fluid from the low pressure reservoir to the rear drive pump/motor, and under certain operating conditions, to the high pressure accumulator. In the full series hybrid design, there is no conventional transmission and drive shaft connecting the engine to the wheels, which frees the engine to be operated at its "best efficiency" speed, to achieve optimum vehicle fuel.
Shutting off the engine when not needed — The unique full series hybrid design not only allows the engine to be operated most efficiently, but also enables the engine to be completely shut off during certain stages of operation — such as when decelerating and when not moving at a stop. As a result, in certain stop-and-go urban city driving, engine use is cut almost in half.Image result for hydraulic hybrid vehicle

Benefits of Hydraulic Hybrid Technology…:
·         Hydraulic drivetrains are particularly attractive for vehicle applications that entail a significant amount of stop-and-go driving, such as urban delivery trucks or school buses.
·         A major benefit of a hydraulic hybrid vehicle is the ability to capture and use a large percentage of the energy normally lost in vehicle braking. 
·         Hydraulic hybrids can quickly and efficiently store and release great amounts of energy due to a higher power density.
·         This is a critical factor in maximizing braking energy recovered and increasing the fuel economy benefit. While the primary benefit of hydraulics is higher fuel economy, hydraulics also increases vehicle acceleration performance. 
·         Hydraulic hybrid technology cost-effectively allows the engine speed or torque to be independent of vehicle speed resulting in cleaner and more efficient engine operation.
·         In a system hydraulic energy can be easily reversed but in case of other systems it cannot be reversed without stopping and also causes damage to the system.
Related image·         Lower Emissions.
·         Reduced operating costs.
·         Better acceleration performance.

Wednesday, 25 January 2017


                                               FUEL FROM WASTE PLASTICS  

  Plastic have become an integral part of our lives. Relatively low cost and being easily available have brought a use and throw culture. Each year more than 100 million tones of plastics are produced worldwide because of use and throw culture so plastics waste management has become a problem worldwide. This paper, explain the process of converting waste plastic into value added fuel through recycling. Thus two universal problems such as Problems of waste plastic and Problems of fuel shortage are being tackled simultaneously. The waste plastics are subjected to depolymerisation, fractional distillations to obtain different value added fuels such as petrol, kerosene, and diesel, lube oil, furnace oil traction and coke. The process of waste plastic into fuels can literally change the economic scenario of our country. Thus, process of converting plastics to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste.

Key Words: Waste plastics, Reactors, Depolymerisation and Fractional distillation.


Degradability of different waste materials:    

     SL. NO.
        Organic waste, etc.
1    to 3   weeks
1    to 3   weeks
       Cotton cloth
8    to 20 weeks
10  to 15 years
     Wooden items.
10  years
      Tin, Aluminium&Metals
100 to 500 years


Million years


                    NAME OF THE PRODUCT
Liquid Distillate
110 %  - 115 %
05% - 10%
18 % - 22%
14% - 16%
Hydrogen etc
01% - 02 %
           Lubricating Oil
8 –10 %

         Specific Gravity at 28C
     Specific Gravity at 15C
        Gross Calorific Value
         Net Calorific Value
          Aniline Point In C
         Aniline Point In 0 F
         Flash Point
           Pour Point
< -20 C
< -20 C
          Cloud Point
< -20 C
< -20 0 C
         Reactivity With Ss
          Reactivity With Ms
       Reactivity With Cl
       Reactivity With Al
         Reactivity With Cu
          Octane Rating
       Time for 0-60 KMPH
22.5 S
18.1 S
     Co % At 400 RMP/Hc
    Comments On Engine Noise

Process brief for 1 KG input and the yield of output:    

     PER KG


(   LITER)






·         Shreeve’s Handbook of Chemical Engineering.
·         Jatropha Bio-diesel production in University of Bangalore, the Statesman (Teri).
·         Ganesnan V ‘IC Engines’, TATA McGraw Hill Book Company- New Delhi.
·         Rajput R.K. ‘Thermal Engineering’, Lakshmi Production (P) Ltd.
Plastics play a major role in day-today life, as in certain application they have an edge over conventional materials. Indeed, their light weight, durability, energy efficiency, coupled with a faster rate of production and more design flexibility, have allowed breakthroughs in fields ranging from non-conventional energy, to horticulture and irrigation, water-purification systems and even space flight.
How ever one has to accept that virtues and vices co-exist. Plastics are relatively cheaper and being easily available has brought about use and throws culture. Plastics waste management has become a problem world over because of their non-degradable property. A majority of landfills, allotted for plastic waste disposal, are approaching their full capacity. Thus recycling is becoming necessary.

Plastics in Environment
Three million tones of waste plastics are produced every year in the U.K.alone, only 7% of which is recycled. In the current recycling process usually the plastics end up at city landfills or incinerator. As with any technological trend, the engineering profession plays an important role in the disposal of plastic waste. Discarded plastic products and packaging materials make up a growing portion of municipal solid waste.
The Global Environment Protection Agency [GEPA] estimates that by the year 2004 the amounts of plastic throw away will be 65% greater than that in the 1990’s. The recycling of the plastic is only about one percent of waste plastic in the stream of waste in developing countries as compared to a rate of recycling of aluminum which is about 40% and 20% for paper, where as recycling rate in India is very high up to 20% of waste plastic.
                In a short span of five years plastics have captured 40% of total 6.79 billion USD packaging market in India. This situation may grow further in the coming years with more and more US and European companies entering the market. It would be very interesting to note the type of litter we generate and the approximate time it takes to degenerate.

India has been used as a dumping ground for plastic waste, mostly from industrialized countries like Canada, Denmark, Germany, UK, Netherlands, Japan, France and the United States.

Each year more than 100 million tones of plastic are produced worldwide. Though plastics have opened the way for a plethora of new inventions and devices it has also ended up clogging the drains and becoming a health hazard. The plastic waste accounts to about 5600 tons per day in India. At these alarming levels of waste generation, India needs to set up facilities for recycling and disposing the waste.

Technological Process
Several processes and means have been attempted to fight against the alarming levels of waste generation. However each process has its drawbacks and operational, economical and financial limitations for practical implementation. We have to set up a process to overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks and limitations.

Description in process

Generally any waste plastic treatment involves sorting operation, which is a time and energy consuming process. In this process waste plastic can be utilized without any sorting (or) cleaning operation.

The process consists of following operations   
1.    Loading of waste into the reactors.
2.    Depolymerisation of the waste plastic.
3.    Collecting the liquid distillate
4.    Collecting the combustible gases.

Fractional Distillation
1.    Loading of distillate into the distillation furnace,
2.    Collecting the fraction of liquid distillate from the distillation tower.

The waste plastic from the landfills are segregated and stored in the storage tank. Using hot air to the reactor where depolymerisation takes place conveys it. The depolymerisation of waste plastic under control batch reactor results in conversion of waste plastic in a mixture of fuels at atmospheric pressure and ambient room temperature.

Liquid fuels consist of Fraction of Gasoline, Diesel, and Lubricating oil. In the process of conversion, by-products such as gases and cokes are also formed. Gases are tested and majority of them are proved to be in the range of LPG. Coke is available as residue in the process, which is again in the form of fuel.

Properties and their Purification of fuels
The properties of liquid distillate match with properties (Ex: specific gravity and pour points) of high quality imported crude.          The fuels obtained in the waste plastic process are virtually free from contaminants such as Lead, Sulphur and Nitrogen. In the process (i.e.) the conversion of waste Plastic into Fuels, the properties mentioned above of Petrol & Diesel fractions obtained are of superior quality with respect to regular commercial Petrol and Diesel purchased locally and has been proved by the performance test.
During the process, hazards related to health and safety is reduced to 90% as compared to regular refinery process.

Quality of fuels

The quality of Gasoline and Diesel fractions obtained in the process is not only at par with regular fuels in tests like Specific gravity is 0.7365 /150C CCR (Conradson Carbon Residue) Ash, calorific value etc but it is also better in terms of quality in test like flash point, API gravity.


            Regular fuels obtained from Crude oil like Gasoline and Diesel are subjected to many reactions and various additives are added to improve combustion and meet BIS characteristics before it is introduced to market. However the fuel (Gasoline, Diesel) fractions obtained in the process can be utilized without much processing.

The average percentage output yield of the products in the first phase of reaction depending on the composition of the waste plastic is as follows,

The percentage of liquid distillate is mentioned in terms of weight by volume whereas percentage of Coke & Gas is mentioned in terms of weight by weight. During the second phase of reaction (i.e.) fractional distillation, the average percentage yields of various fuel fractions depending on the composition of the waste plastic are follows,

Comparison of Petrol from waste Plastics with regular Petrol


The production of the fuels from the waste plastic of various sorts has been carried out a number of times to arrive at the unit cost of production. The break - up of the cost for per kg input of the plastic and the related output for the same is depicted in the table below.

                      Since, the plastics are non-biodegradable, the development in biodegradable plastics are still lagging behind. So it is essential to convert the plastics for some useful purposes in order to reduce the waste plastics to environment. . Thus, the process of converting plastics to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste. This paper is of greater importance in the present Indian scene in view of the serious energy crisis and is in the interest of national economy.