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Wednesday, 11 June 2014

EXHAUST POWERED AUTOMOBILE AIR-CONDITIONER


EXHAUST POWERED AUTOMOBILE AIR-CONDITIONER 


 

In today’s world, the rising oil prices is a matter that is really bothersome for all the automobile manufacturers and as well as to the end users. The fuel reserves are also fast depleting and we’re left with no means to replenish this highly precious driving force that powers each and every sphere of life either directly or otherwise. It is indeed perturbing that today’s trend of fuel consumption when extrapolated says that all these would last only for a few decades. Because of fast depleting fossil fuel resources and environment one way to secure our future is to use our resources as economically as possible.
         


   The project titled “Exhaust powered automobile air conditioning” deals with the efficient way of running the ac compressor of the automobile with the aid of the exhaust gas. This project works on the theme of turbocharger in which a low pressure high speed turbine is placed in the exhaust gas manifold. The exhaust gas from the engine is made to rotate the turbine where the thermal power of exhaust gas is converted into rotary motion through turbine. This rotary motion from turbine is given to the turbocharger compressor which compresses the refrigerant vapor. So through this air conditioning effect is obtained without loss of any crankshaft power.   
            

Generally by using ac in vehicle there is considerable drop of mileage of the vehicle. But by applying this principle there is no drop of mileage. Moreover the fuel is used more efficiently and economically. The crankshaft power is saved and this power is used in increasing the power of the vehicle. Owing to lesser fuel intake, the exhaust emissions will also be considerably reduced thereby avoiding much of unburnt hydrocarbons let out into the air. Thus by implementing this project we can ensure better fuel and environmental conditions.


NEED FOR THIS PROJECTS
            Our prime aim is to increase the mileage of vehicles especially petrol engine vehicles. By this we can save fuel economy from 15 to 20% and also we are conserving the waste exhaust power in a best way using turbocharger. Because 45% of the fuel energy is wasted through waste exhaust gas.
And also we need to equalize the performance of both air conditioned and non air conditioned(A/C & non  A/C ) vehicles. We reduce the the exhaust pollution (NOx,SOx etc...) since there is no utilisation of fuel for Air Conditioning.


MAIN THEME

            As we know that in a turbocharger, the exhaust gas strikes the turbine (low pressure high speed turbine) and makes it to rotate the shaft. At the other end of shaft an impeller is mounted within the casing which compresses the atmospheric air to engine inlet, which increases the 35% of engine power(boost power).It compresses the air and gives boost pressure of 40psi.Since the type bearing used is Anti-friction bearing with negligible friction losses and also the type of coupling used is fluid coupling so there is a good power transmission with very high speed ranging from 30,000 to  90,000 RPM.
Likewise , Our innovative idea is about the application of this turbocharger compressor instead of A/C compressor in automobiles. so that we have made the A/C compressor to run just by using exhaust gas.

Monday, 9 June 2014

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

 by Er moses.j




                            Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.
Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 gigawatts (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2009, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 21 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain. Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert.The world's largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country's automotive fuel Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA.
While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. Globally, an estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV systems. Micro-hydro systems configured into village-scale or county-scale mini-grids serve many areas.More than 30 million rural households get lighting and cooking from biogas made in household-scale digesters. Biomass cookstoves are used by 160 million households.
Climate change concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors.
Ø  Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: power generation, hot water/ space heating, transport fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services.
  • Power generation. 
  •                          Renewable energy provides 18 percent of total electricity generation worldwide. Renewable power generators are spread across many countries, and wind power alone already provides a significant share of electricity in some areas: for example, 14 percent in the U.S. state of Iowa, 40 percent in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, and 20 percent in Denmark. Some countries get most of their power from renewables, including Iceland (100 percent), Brazil (85 percent), Austria (62 percent), New Zealand (65 percent), and Sweden (54 percent).
  • Heating.
  •                          Solar hot water makes an important contribution in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70 percent of the global total (180 GWth). Most of these systems are installed on multi-family apartment buildings and meet a portion of the hot water needs of an estimated 50–60 million households in China. Worldwide, total installed solar water heating systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households. The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly.
  • Transport fuels.
  •                    Renewable biofuels have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption in the United States since 2006. The 93 billion liters of biofuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the equivalent of an estimated 68 billion liters of gasoline, equal to about 5 percent of world gasoline production.

Wind power:

                                Airflows can be used to run wind turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for commercial use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind speed increases, power output increases dramatically.Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites, are preferred locations for wind farms. Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favourable sites.
Globally, the long-term technical potential of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global energy production, or 40 times current electricity demand. This could require wind turbines to be installed over large areas, particularly in areas of higher wind resources. Offshore resources experience mean wind speeds of ~90% greater than that of land, so offshore resources could contribute substantially more energy.
Wind power is renewable and produces no greenhouse gases during operation, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and consumes very little land area.
 Hydropower:
                        Grand Coulee Dam is a hydroelectric gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington. The dam supplies four power stations with an installed capacity of 6,809 MW and is the largest electric power-producing facility in the United States.Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than air,[24][25] even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy:

Solar energy:

                                Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Solar powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaics and heat engines. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, daylighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

Biomass:

                          Biomass (plant material) is a renewable energy source because the energy it contains comes from the sun. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants capture the sun's energy. When the plants are burned, they release the sun's energy they contain. In this way, biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for storing solar energy. As long as biomass is produced sustainably, with only as much used as is grown, the battery will last indefinitely.
In general there are two main approaches to using plants for energy production: growing plants specifically for energy use, and using the residues from plants that are used for other things. The best approaches vary from region to region according to climate, soils and geography.

 Biofuel:

                                 Information on pump regarding ethanol fuel blend up to 10%, California.
Liquid biofuel is usually either bioalcohol such as bioethanol or an oil such as biodiesel.
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil.
Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe.
Biofuels provided 1.8% of the world's transport fuel in 2008.
The major advantage of biofuels emerges from their minor impact on the carbon cycle in nature. While fossil fuels add carbon to the carbon cycle, biofuels recycle the carbon via the path of plants - biofuel - atmospheric carbon dioxide - plants.

 Geothermal energy:

                          Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in volcanically active locations of the globe or from shallow depths, as in geothermal heat pumps in most locations of the planet. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core.
Three types of power plants are used to generate power from geothermal energy: dry steam, flash, and binary. Dry steam plants take steam out of fractures in the ground and use it to directly drive a turbine that spins a generator. Flash plants take hot water, usually at temperatures over 200 °C, out of the ground, and allows it to boil as it rises to the surface then separates the steam phase in steam/water separators and then runs the steam through a turbine. In binary plants, the hot water flows through heat exchangers, boiling an organic fluid that spins the turbine. The condensed steam and remaining geothermal fluid from all three types of plants are injected back into the hot rock to pick up more heat.
The geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than in others. Where hot underground steam or water can be tapped and brought to the surface it may be used to generate electricity. Such geothermal power sources exist in certain geologically unstable parts of the world such as Chile, Iceland, New Zealand, United States, the Philippines and Italy. The two most prominent areas for this in the United States are in the Yellowstone basin and in northern California. Iceland produced 170 MW geothermal power and heated 86% of all houses in the year 2000 through geothermal energy. Some 8000 MW of capacity is operational in total.
There is also the potential to generate geothermal energy from hot dry rocks. Holes at least 3 km deep are drilled into the earth. Some of these holes pump water into the earth, while other holes pump hot water out. The heat resource consists of hot underground radiogenic granite rocks, which heat up when there is enough sediment between the rock and the earths surface. Several companies in Australia are exploring this technology.

 



At the end of 2009, worldwide wind farm capacity was 159,213 MW,[36] representing an increase of 31 percent during the year,[3] and wind power supplied some 1.3% of global electricity consumption.[37] Wind power accounts for approximately 19% of electricity use in Denmark, 9% in Spain and Portugal, and 6% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland.[38]
Top 10 wind power countries
Country
Total capacity
end 2009 (MW)
Total capacity
June 2010 (MW)
United States
35,159
36,300
China
26,010
33,800
Germany
25,777
26,400
Spain
19,149
19,500
India
10, 925
12,100
Italy
4,850
5,300
France
4,521
5,000
United Kingdom
4,092
4,600
Portugal
3,535
3,800
Denmark
3,497
3,700
Rest of world
21,698
24,500
Total
159,213
175,000

 New generation of solar thermal plants:

Large solar thermal power stations include the 354 megawatt (MW) Solar Energy Generating Systems power plant in the USA, Solnova Solar Power Station (Spain, 150 MW), Andasol solar power station (Spain, 100 MW), Nevada Solar One (USA, 64 MW), PS20 solar power tower (Spain, 20 MW), and the PS10 solar power tower (Spain, 11 MW).
The solar thermal power industry is growing rapidly with 1.2 GW under construction as of April 2009 and another 13.9 GW announced globally through 2014. Spain is the epicenter of solar thermal power development with 22 projects for 1,037 MW under construction, all of which are projected to come online by the end of 2010.In the United States, 5,600 MW of solar thermal power projects have been announced.In developing countries, three World Bank projects for integrated solar thermal/combined-cycle gas-turbine power plants in Egypt, Mexico, and Morocco have been approved.


WATER AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FOR FOUR STROKE ENGINES

                        WATER AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FOR FOUR STROKE ENGINES 


  The main objective of the system is to reduce the use of non-renewable resources by using the easily available resource WATER. This is done by separating the water (H2 O) into hydrogen and oxygen through the process called electrolysis. The separated hydrogen trapped from the electrolysis kit to the engine and then it is combusted. Through this system, the pollution can be reduced highly as the exhaust of this system is only water vapour. The easy availability of fuel reduces the scarcity of fuel and the low cost of fuel makes it  easy and comfortable to use.
                                    The hydrogen and oxygen is separated by passing current through the electrodes, then it is stored in a small gas tank and then it is sent to the engine.

                                    Due to this usage , nonrenewable resources usage  can be decreased hugely and it can be saved for the future world.  
small over view
In the present world, automotive industries uses different types of fuels to run the engines. Some are Petrol, Diesel, Ethanol, Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPG, Compressed Natural Gas CNG,etc, and even electrical energy are also used to propel the vehicles. The availability of these fuels,price hike and pollution of these fuels is becoming a major problem worldwide.
To eliminate all these facts an idea of using water as a fuel for engine is proposed. This is done by splitting up of hydrogen and oxygen from the water and using hydrogen as a main fuel for the combustion process because hydrogen is a burnable gas or exploidable gas.
  In this, hydrogen is separated from water through a process known as electrolysis. In the electrolysis hydrogen is separated from water by passing current to the water through electrodes. The hydrogen is trapped separately from the electrolysis kit and mixed with air for better calorific value. This mixed hydrogen and air is sent to the engine and the combustion is made. The exhaust produced will be a water vapor and this helps to minimize pollution.

Sunday, 8 June 2014

FUEL FROM WASTE PLASTICS


                                               FUEL FROM WASTE PLASTICS
 


  Plastic have become an integral part of our lives. Relatively low cost and being easily available have brought a use and throw culture. Each year more than 100 million tones of plastics are produced worldwide because of use and throw culture so plastics waste management has become a problem worldwide. This paper, explain the process of converting waste plastic into value added fuel through recycling. Thus two universal problems such as Problems of waste plastic and Problems of fuel shortage are being tackled simultaneously. The waste plastics are subjected to depolymerisation, fractional distillations to obtain different value added fuels such as petrol, kerosene, and diesel, lube oil, furnace oil traction and coke. The process of waste plastic into fuels can literally change the economic scenario of our country. Thus, process of converting plastics to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste.

Key Words: Waste plastics, Reactors, Depolymerisation and Fractional distillation.

  
                   Introduction

Degradability of different waste materials:    


     SL. NO.
TYPE OF PRODUCTS
TIME  TAKEN  TO
DEGENERATE
1    
        Organic waste, etc.
1    to 3   weeks
2
           Paper
1    to 3   weeks
3
       Cotton cloth
8    to 20 weeks
4
      Wood
10  to 15 years
5
     Wooden items.
10  years
6
      Tin, Aluminium&Metals
100 to 500 years

         Plastics

Million years

 


Yield
                    NAME OF THE PRODUCT
              AMOUNT IN PERCENTAGE
Liquid Distillate
110 %  - 115 %
Coke
05% - 10%
Gas
18 % - 22%
LPG
14% - 16%
Hydrogen etc
01% - 02 %
FUELS
      PERCENTAGE
              Gasoline
60%
              Diesel
30%
           Lubricating Oil
8 –10 %
SL.NO.

SPECIFICATIONS
Regular
PETROL
PETROL FROM WASTE PLASTIC
1. 
         Specific Gravity at 28C
0.7423
0.7254
2.
     Specific Gravity at 15C
0.7528
0.7365
3.
        Gross Calorific Value
11210
11262
4.
         Net Calorific Value
10460
10498
5.
          Aniline Point In C
48
28
6.
         Aniline Point In 0 F
118.4
82.4
7.
         Flash Point
23
22
8. 
           Pour Point
< -20 C
< -20 C
9.
          Cloud Point
< -20 C
< -20 0 C
10
         Reactivity With Ss
NIL
NIL
11.
          Reactivity With Ms
NIL
NIL
12.
       Reactivity With Cl
NIL
NIL
13.
       Reactivity With Al
NIL
NIL
14. 
         Reactivity With Cu
NIL
NIL
15.
          Octane Rating
83
95
16. 
       Mileage
44.4
44.0
17.
       Time for 0-60 KMPH
22.5 S
18.1 S
18. 
     Co % At 400 RMP/Hc
2.8
3.5
19.
    Comments On Engine Noise
MORE
LESS

Process brief for 1 KG input and the yield of output:    

INPUT
     QTY
  RATE
     PER KG
    AMOUNT
(RS).

    OUTPUT    

QTY  
(   LITER)
     RATE
  PER
    LITER
   AMOUNT
(RS).
        PLASTIC
1.00
2.00
2.00
PETROL
0.600
37.50
22.50
       LABOUR


5.00
DIESEL
0.300
25.50
7.65
        SERVICE
       CHARGE


2.50
LUBE OIL
0.100
15.00
1.50
      TOTAL
1.00

9.50

1.00

31.65

·         Shreeve’s Handbook of Chemical Engineering.
·         Jatropha Bio-diesel production in University of Bangalore, the Statesman (Teri).
·         Ganesnan V ‘IC Engines’, TATA McGraw Hill Book Company- New Delhi.
·         Rajput R.K. ‘Thermal Engineering’, Lakshmi Production (P) Ltd.
Plastics play a major role in day-today life, as in certain application they have an edge over conventional materials. Indeed, their light weight, durability, energy efficiency, coupled with a faster rate of production and more design flexibility, have allowed breakthroughs in fields ranging from non-conventional energy, to horticulture and irrigation, water-purification systems and even space flight.
How ever one has to accept that virtues and vices co-exist. Plastics are relatively cheaper and being easily available has brought about use and throws culture. Plastics waste management has become a problem world over because of their non-degradable property. A majority of landfills, allotted for plastic waste disposal, are approaching their full capacity. Thus recycling is becoming necessary.

Plastics in Environment
Three million tones of waste plastics are produced every year in the U.K.alone, only 7% of which is recycled. In the current recycling process usually the plastics end up at city landfills or incinerator. As with any technological trend, the engineering profession plays an important role in the disposal of plastic waste. Discarded plastic products and packaging materials make up a growing portion of municipal solid waste.
The Global Environment Protection Agency [GEPA] estimates that by the year 2004 the amounts of plastic throw away will be 65% greater than that in the 1990’s. The recycling of the plastic is only about one percent of waste plastic in the stream of waste in developing countries as compared to a rate of recycling of aluminum which is about 40% and 20% for paper, where as recycling rate in India is very high up to 20% of waste plastic.
                In a short span of five years plastics have captured 40% of total 6.79 billion USD packaging market in India. This situation may grow further in the coming years with more and more US and European companies entering the market. It would be very interesting to note the type of litter we generate and the approximate time it takes to degenerate.


India has been used as a dumping ground for plastic waste, mostly from industrialized countries like Canada, Denmark, Germany, UK, Netherlands, Japan, France and the United States.

Each year more than 100 million tones of plastic are produced worldwide. Though plastics have opened the way for a plethora of new inventions and devices it has also ended up clogging the drains and becoming a health hazard. The plastic waste accounts to about 5600 tons per day in India. At these alarming levels of waste generation, India needs to set up facilities for recycling and disposing the waste.

Technological Process
Several processes and means have been attempted to fight against the alarming levels of waste generation. However each process has its drawbacks and operational, economical and financial limitations for practical implementation. We have to set up a process to overcome the above-mentioned drawbacks and limitations.


Description in process

Generally any waste plastic treatment involves sorting operation, which is a time and energy consuming process. In this process waste plastic can be utilized without any sorting (or) cleaning operation.

The process consists of following operations   
1.    Loading of waste into the reactors.
2.    Depolymerisation of the waste plastic.
3.    Collecting the liquid distillate
4.    Collecting the combustible gases.

Fractional Distillation
1.    Loading of distillate into the distillation furnace,
2.    Collecting the fraction of liquid distillate from the distillation tower.

The waste plastic from the landfills are segregated and stored in the storage tank. Using hot air to the reactor where depolymerisation takes place conveys it. The depolymerisation of waste plastic under control batch reactor results in conversion of waste plastic in a mixture of fuels at atmospheric pressure and ambient room temperature.

Liquid fuels consist of Fraction of Gasoline, Diesel, and Lubricating oil. In the process of conversion, by-products such as gases and cokes are also formed. Gases are tested and majority of them are proved to be in the range of LPG. Coke is available as residue in the process, which is again in the form of fuel.



Properties and their Purification of fuels
            
The properties of liquid distillate match with properties (Ex: specific gravity and pour points) of high quality imported crude.          The fuels obtained in the waste plastic process are virtually free from contaminants such as Lead, Sulphur and Nitrogen. In the process (i.e.) the conversion of waste Plastic into Fuels, the properties mentioned above of Petrol & Diesel fractions obtained are of superior quality with respect to regular commercial Petrol and Diesel purchased locally and has been proved by the performance test.
During the process, hazards related to health and safety is reduced to 90% as compared to regular refinery process.

Quality of fuels

The quality of Gasoline and Diesel fractions obtained in the process is not only at par with regular fuels in tests like Specific gravity is 0.7365 /150C CCR (Conradson Carbon Residue) Ash, calorific value etc but it is also better in terms of quality in test like flash point, API gravity.

Additives

            Regular fuels obtained from Crude oil like Gasoline and Diesel are subjected to many reactions and various additives are added to improve combustion and meet BIS characteristics before it is introduced to market. However the fuel (Gasoline, Diesel) fractions obtained in the process can be utilized without much processing.

          
The average percentage output yield of the products in the first phase of reaction depending on the composition of the waste plastic is as follows,







The percentage of liquid distillate is mentioned in terms of weight by volume whereas percentage of Coke & Gas is mentioned in terms of weight by weight. During the second phase of reaction (i.e.) fractional distillation, the average percentage yields of various fuel fractions depending on the composition of the waste plastic are follows,



Comparison of Petrol from waste Plastics with regular Petrol


Feasibility

The production of the fuels from the waste plastic of various sorts has been carried out a number of times to arrive at the unit cost of production. The break - up of the cost for per kg input of the plastic and the related output for the same is depicted in the table below.

Conclusion
                      Since, the plastics are non-biodegradable, the development in biodegradable plastics are still lagging behind. So it is essential to convert the plastics for some useful purposes in order to reduce the waste plastics to environment. . Thus, the process of converting plastics to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste. This paper is of greater importance in the present Indian scene in view of the serious energy crisis and is in the interest of national economy.