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Sunday, 7 July 2013

NANO TECNOLOGY FOR STROKE by moses dhilipkumar

                                 NANO TEChNOLOGY FOR STROKE      by moses dhilip kumar  


  • Dictionary defines stroke as a sudden diminution or loss of consciousness, sensation and voluntary motion caused by rupture or obstruction (as by a clot) of an artery of the brain also called apoplexy.

  • In layman’s term stroke occurs when a clot blocks a blood vessel that carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain. When that happens, part of the brain cannot get the blood (and oxygen) it needs, so it starts to die.


·         Blood converted from the liquid to solid state is called as thrombus. The process by which the blood clot is formed is called as coagulation. A blood clot or thrombus is stationary within the vessel or heart. If it moves from that location through the blood stream, it is referred to as an embolus.

·         Blood does wonderful things like carrying oxygen, cleaning waste products, and delivering cells and chemicals to fight infection. But mess up its environment and blood can cause all sorts of problems. The heart pushes blood cells to the far recesses of the body, but it returns from the fingers, toes, arms and legs in veins that are milked by the routine contractions of the muscles that surround them. As you walk, blood gets pushed back to the heart; as you type, the muscles of your fingers and hands do the work to get the blood back.

·         Without that muscle movement, blood stagnates and has a tendency to clot. There are two parallel systems of veins in the legs and arms. The superficial set under the skin drains blood into the deeper set through a set of connectors that have valves in place. So clots in the superficial system are filtered before they enter the deep pipeline. No such luck for the deep vein system. No valve, no filters, and it's a straight shot to the heart and lungs if a clot should form and break off.

  • Deep venous thrombosis, or DVT, is the medical term for a blood clot in that deeper system. The symptoms of pain, swelling, and redness are similar to those of infection, and sometimes it's hard to tell the two apart, except by using ultrasound to check the flow of blood in the veins. But the DVT is just the harbinger (sign) of potential disaster. If a clot has formed, it can grow and break off and float downstream.













  • Clogging of arteries within the brain (for example, lacunar stroke)

  • Hardening of the arteries leading to the brain (for example, carotid artery occlusion)

  • Hardening of the arteries leading to the brain (for example, carotid artery occlusion)


  • The brain is an extremely complex organ that controls various body functions. If a stroke occurs and blood flow can't reach the region that controls a particular body function, that part of the body won't work as it should

  • RightBrain
    The effects of a stroke depend on several factors including the location of the obstruction and how much brain tissue is affected.  However, because one side of the brain controls the opposite side of the body, a stroke affecting one side will result in neurological complications on the side of the body if affects

  • If stroke occurs in the brain's right side, the left side of the body (and the right side of the face) will be affected, which could produce any or all of the following:
  1. Paralysis on the left side of the body
  2.  Vision problems
  3. Memory loss

  • LeftBrain
    If the stroke occurs in the left side of the brain, the right side of the body (and the left side of the face) will be affected, producing some or all of the following
  1. Paralysis on the right side of the body
  2. Speech/language problems 
  3. Slow, cautious, behavioral style.
  4. Memory loss


Concerning the adverse effects of stroke, we have implemented a system, which is electronically viable for the treatment of stroke. Currently there is no pre-diagnostic treatment for strokes. Only with the help of dietary control, strokes can be prevented. Further, the formation of clot cannot be pre-determined by any of the electronic gadgets.

Considering the present pathetic scenario in our mind, we have formulated a system, wherein a nanobot is used for such a cause. With such a rapid development in the field of nano, we can extract an enormous potential from these tiny-bots.


Our system adopts “stinger bots” which follows these procedures

·         Our stinger locates the clot
·         Meticulous analysis of the blood clot is done by our bots
·          Administration of TPA and WARFARIN, which are “clot-busters” are used by nanobots to dissolve the clot.
·         Periodical review of the diagnosis is done and an operational review of the process is retrieved.






  • A person with the symptoms of the stroke needs to be determined where the clot exactly lies.
  • This is one of the prior and mandatory steps of our system.

Fluzon bots, which are specialized bots in image processing, are adopted for this purpose, which adopts PHYTHON CODING.

  • The clot determination is done by concerning various aspects namely,
    1. Thickness
    2. Density
    3. Blood flow obstruction ratio which we denote it as BFOR
    4. Oxygen ratio

  • The above figures shows the different process we adopt with our bots with respect to the location of the clot.
  • Clear 3-D view of the dimensional analysis of the clot that is viewed by the doctor and the different ratios needed for consideration is retrieved.
After this process a much more intense analysis work is done by getting the information needed

·         After the clot is determined and various aspect ratios are noted, a very keen diagnosis method has to be adopted for the treatment of the clots.
·         BFOR a very important ratio determines the nature of the clot which is given an hierarchical order of preference based on the present condition of it, which can be otherwise given as
1.      When 1 is denoted the case is very urgent and needs prior treatment immediately
2.      When 2 is denoted the case lies between a normal ratio and an urgent case
3.      When 3 is denoted the case is quite normal and treatment need not be done in a faster pace.

Automatically a database is set up which analyses the case and urgency of the clot and the medicinal back up needed for the case


·         The most important use for adopting nanobots is because they are excellent medicine carriers and they do it by taking it directly to the spot needed.
·         Tpa one of the most important treatments over the last few years for the immediate treatment of a stroke is a medicine called TPA (which stands for tissue plasminogen activator). TPA is a very powerful “clot – buster” that is infused through the veins. If given within the first three hours after the onset of the symptoms. TPA can significantly improve the patients outcome from the stroke over the long term. The sooner the TPA is started. The better the outcome, so time is of the essence.

·         Warfarin is also sometimes used to prevent the recurrence of a stroke in other situations, such as with certain other heart conditions and conditions in which the blood has a tendency to clot on its own (hypercoagulable states). Patients taking warfarin need to have periodic blood checks to make sure that their current dose is producing the desired effect.
·         So depending upon he case either TPA or warfarins are injected through the bots to dissolve the clot.
·         The nanobot that specializes in this field is called the ‘stinger bots’. These bots have the property of delivering the medicine to the exact place needed 

STINGER bots provide us with three main important factors before the operation has to be done. They are namely,
All these three sensors categorize the given clot with the respective parameters involved and then the operation is carried out with intense care and observation.

  • As soon as this process, the different parametrical readings taken before are again checked for conformation.
  • It is seen that the patients health condition is back to normal by observing the factors for several times and it is made sure that in every such check there is a very negative result for stroke formation.
  • As we know that stroke patients need more therapies for early recovery, the process involved are implemented in this step

·         Based on the observations of the above processes an operational report of the patient is retrieved which indicates the
1.       Dissolvation factor of the clot (DF)
2.      The blood flow obstruction ratio (BFOR) and
3.      The oxygen content of the blood (OC)

·         These factors are seen to it that they never cross the normal value for atleast a month time after the process has been performed.
·         Only after that, the patient is discharged from the treatment.

1.      As the two nano bots that we are applying in our system is a constituent made of the same composition of the blood cells  , the anti-bodies  present in the human being  won’t detect our system as a foreign particle , which eradicates the side effects.
2.       The system is very safe as we have  a step by step process which keeps monitoring the  different risk factors of the body and has a keen eye on the parameters involved with it.
3.      We have included a special theraphy concept including our elecronical system which balances the ratio of application.
Ø As of till now no  elecronically viable system has been  adopted for the treatment for strokes.

Ø The monitoring system is purely done by phython coding which has the following advantages

·         No  stroke treatment system has ever adopted phython coding as its source code
·         The standard library of phython mirrored the c library
·         Phython boots faster than JAVA
·         Phython faster than java when it comes to parsing and processing large volumes of data(10 GB) at a time.



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